A dock is a physical connection between earth and sea at a port. This union bears noteworthy complexity, into which we will delve in this review of the types of docks we may find, their uses, and their characteristics.
There are two fundamental concepts regarding docks: their destination and their physical surroundings.
The destination of the dock determines the type of freight and vessels using it. This helps to define the length, depth, height, storage surface areas, etc. Knowledge of physical surroundings is fundamental in order to select the most efficient kind of dock. There are many companies that provide dock installation services.
Types Of docks based on configuration:
Gravity docks are docks where the land is contained by the very weight of the dock itself. Their reduced specific surface area makes them the most long-lasting.
These consist of a pre-manufactured reinforced concrete caisson wall. These caissons are transferred by floating them to their location to be sunk and filled with concrete or aggregates. This dock is the most susceptible to inclement weather.
Pre-manufactured block docks
In this case, the dock is made of dry-built concrete blocks, placed underwater with cranes. These are docks for reduced depths, where caissons cannot be used.
Underwater concrete docks
These are retaining docks made on-site, underwater. They tend to have a uniform or slightly scaled thickness to facilitate framing.
This dock is suitable:
- When the land has a high load capacity and is not inclined toward deformation.
- In sheltered areas and docks with depths less than 10 meters.
- When pre-manufactured blocks cannot be used (space or equipment limitations to place them).